Global Health Chronicles

Steve Cochi - Session 1

David J. Sencer CDC Museum, Global Health Chronicles
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1:47 - Background

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Partial Transcript: Would you introduce yourself by name, say where and when you were born, and speak a little bit about your childhood?

Segment Synopsis: Cochi talks about his childhood and the role models he found in his teachers.

Keywords: Boston [Massachusetts]; lacrosse; public health; Rochester [New York]; teachers

Subjects: CDC [United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention]; Massachusetts Institute of Technology [MIT]; New York

6:53 - College and Medical School

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Partial Transcript: That was high school, and then I became a biology major at MIT.

Segment Synopsis: Cochi talks about his time in higher education and the lessons he learned about open mindedness and diversity during medical school in North Carolina.

Keywords: Bible Belt; biology major; Boston [Massachusetts]; Catholic; diversity; Duke Hospital; Durham [North Carolina]; global immunization; medical school; Yankee

Subjects: Duke University; measles; MIT; North Carolina; Virginia

11:53 - Dr. Katz

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Partial Transcript: I believe you returned to Massachusetts for residency after medical school. Is that correct?

Segment Synopsis: Cochi discusses his professional relationship and friendship with Dr. Samuel L. Katz.

Keywords: Department of Pediatrics; Dr. S. Katz; Harvard pediatric training programs; Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Pediatric Residency Program; measles eradication; measles vaccine; Navajo Reservation; pediatrician; polio eradication; psychiatry; residency

Subjects: American Academy of Pediatrics; CDC [United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention]; Harvard; U.S. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP]; United States Public Health Service

18:03 - Early Career

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Partial Transcript: Is there anything else you’d like to include about Duke or your early training and education?

Segment Synopsis: Cochi talks about his early career with the U.S. Public Health Service.

Keywords: bacterial meningitis; children; epidemiology; Gallup [New Mexico]; medical school; Native American tribe; Navajo Reservation; pediatric training hospital; pediatrics; preventative medicine; primary care pediatrics; public health; rural; scholarship; subspecialty; Tohatchi [New Mexico]; urban

Subjects: Arizona; CDC [United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention]; Duke University; Indian Health Service of the U.S. Public Health Service; United States Public Health Service

29:03 - Coming to CDC

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Partial Transcript: Could you talk us through the conversation that you had with yourself a little bit?

Segment Synopsis: Cochi talks about his transition to CDC and deciding whether or not working for the CDC was for him.

Keywords: Boston [Massachusetts]; global immunization; meningitis; pediatric infectious disease fellowship; pediatrician; prevention; public health

Subjects: CDC [United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention]; EIS [Epidemic Intelligence Service]

33:31 - The Beginning of Global Polio Eradication

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Partial Transcript: You came to CDC in 1982 in EIS, and you worked—maybe we can skip EIS, because I believe that’s in Karen Torghele’s interview on Global Health Chronicles.

Segment Synopsis: Cochi recalls when he first got involved with the Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

Keywords: anti-eradication; de Quadros, Ciro C.A., MD, MPH; Dr. C. González; Foege, William H. “Bill”, MD; Global Health Chronicles; Global Polio Eradication Initiative; Henderson, D.A. [Donale Ainslie]; Mahler, Dr. Halfdan T.; Polio Eradication Activity; Sabine, Albert B., MD; smallpox; Smallpox Eradication Initiative; Task Force for Child Survival; Western Pacific Region of WHO

Subjects: CDC [United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention]; EIS [Epidemic Intelligence Service]; Emory; Pan American Health Organization; Rockefeller Foundation; Rotary International; UNDP [United Nations Development Program]; UNICEF [United Nations Children’s Fund]; WHA [World Health Assembly]; WHO [World Health Organization]; World Bank

43:26 - The Advent of Polio Eradication

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Partial Transcript: From 1985 to 1989 you were an epidemiologist, correct? Working in surveillance?

Segment Synopsis: Cochi talks about how global polio eradication came about.

Keywords: epidemiologist; Foege, William H. “Bill”; global immunization activities; polio; polio eradication; surveillance; vaccine-preventable disease

Subjects: CDC [United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention]; NIP [National Immunization Program]; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

46:04 - The Team

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Partial Transcript: In the late ‘80s, could you talk about the team of people, the group of people—yourself, [Dr.] Olen [M.] Kew, [Dr.] Mark [A.] Pallansch, [Robert A.] Bob Keegan, and I think [Dr. Walter R.] Walt Dowdle was around at that point, but in a role—he did not become part of the Polio Eradication Activity.

Segment Synopsis: Cochi discusses the polio eradication team and “beer diplomacy.”

Keywords: Atlanta [Georgia]; beer diplomacy; Briarcliff Road; Clairmont Road; Dowdle, Walter R., PHD, MS; epidemiologists; Keegan, Robert A. “Bob”; Kew, Olen M. PHD; Mo’s Pizza; Pallansch, Mark A. PHD; virologists

Subjects: CDC [United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention]; Global Polio Laboratory Network/ “LabNet” [GPLN]; Task Force on Global Health [formerly Task Force for Child Survival and Development]

51:55 - Early Success in Global Polio Eradication

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Partial Transcript: Then moving beyond that, at that time, we were dealing with 125 countries on five continents at the start of this global initiative that were endemic for polio and an estimated 350,000 polio cases in the world.

Segment Synopsis: Cochi talks about the early success of polio eradication and big global partners.

Keywords: Beijing [China]; endemic polio; immunization programs; J. Zemin; polio vaccine

Subjects: China; NIDs [national immunization days]; UNICEF [United Nations Children’s Fund]; WHO [World Health Organization]

57:39 - Politics

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Partial Transcript: To return to the beginning of the history of the program, in 1993, [William J.] Bill Clinton becomes president of the U.S., and he begins the National Immunization Program, which supports routine immunization in the United States—and also supports a case for supporting polio immunization at CDC. Would you say that’s accurate?

Segment Synopsis: Cochi covers some political changes and players that helped push polio immunization to front and center.

Keywords: appropriations; Appropriations Subcommittee; Bumpers, Betty Lou Flanagan; Bumpers, Dale L., Former United States Senator; Bush, George H.W., Former United States president.; Carter, E Rosalynn; Every Child by Two [*program by Betty L.F. Bumpers]; Little Rock [Arkansas]; measles; president; W. Clinton

Subjects: Arkansas; CDC [United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention]; National Immunization Program [NIP], CDC; President’s Childhood Immunization Initiative; UNICEF [United Nations Children’s Fund]; WHO [World Health Organization]

61:50 - Acceleration

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Partial Transcript: On a day-to-day [basis], what was your role? What were you doing?

Segment Synopsis: Cochi discusses his work in polio eradication.

Keywords: attending physicians; Bangkok [Thailand]; epidemiological surveillance; immunization program; Keegan, Robert A. “Bob”; medical staff; ministers of health; public health advisor; STD program; surveillance

Subjects: CDC [United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention]; Central Asian Republic; Delta [Air Lines]; European Region; GID [Global Immunization Division, National Center for Global Health, United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention]; India; Kurdistan; Soviet Republics; Tajikistan; Turkey; Uzbekistan; Vietnam; WHO [World Health Organization]

71:24 - Eradication

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Partial Transcript: Could you trace the history of the outbreaks through the ‘90s, as the program is growing and accelerating?

Segment Synopsis: Cochi recounts the timeline of outbreaks and the processes to acknowledge eradication.

Keywords: boat people; Cambodia-Vietnam border; endemic; immunization activities; measles; polio transmission; Vaccine-Preventable Disease Eradication Division

Subjects: Afghanistan; Cambodia; China; GID [Global Immunization Division, National Center for Global Health, United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention]; GPEI [Global Polio Eradication Initiative]; India; Mekong Delta Region; Nigeria; Pakistan; Polio Eradication Activity; Vietnam; Western Pacific Region; WHO [World Health Organization]; WPRO; “PAIN” Countries

80:03 - Low-Income Countries

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Partial Transcript: Let me just see if you would talk about countries in which there was less infrastructure than in other countries.

Segment Synopsis: Cochi talks about polio eradication efforts in lower income or war torn countries.

Keywords: civil unrest; endemic; health system; low-income countries; middle-income countries; non-government organizations; war

Subjects: Afghanistan; Democratic Republic of Congo; Iraq; Pakistan; Somalia; Syria; Taliban; UNICEF [United Nations Children’s Fund]; WHO [World Health Organization]; [South] Sudan

86:45 - Worldwide Team

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Partial Transcript: Would you talk about some of the staff people: individuals who have worked in-country, and then innovators who would come to mind immediately?

Segment Synopsis: Cochi discusses the different people stationed around the world working on polio eradication and how they worked as a team.

Keywords: Alexandria [Egypt]; Andrus, Jon K. MD; Cairo [Egypt]; de Quadros, Ciro C.A., MD, MPH; Delhi [India]; disease surveillance; EIS Officer; Jafari, Hamid S. MD; low vaccination coverage; mapping; Moriniere, Dr. Bernard J.; Mo’s Pizza; oral polio vaccine; Otten, Dr. Mac W.; Sabine vaccine; Tangermann, Dr. Rudolph H. “Rudi”; Wassilak, Dr. Steven G.

Subjects: Americas; CDC [United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention]; China; Dominican Republic; Eastern Mediteranean Regional Office of the WHO [EMRO]; GID [Global Immunization Division, National Center for Global Health, United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention]; Haiti; Hispaniola; India; Manila; NIDs [national immunization days]; Southeast Asia region; The Philippines; Vietnam; Western Pacific Region; WHO [World Health Organization]

95:51 - Wrap up

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Partial Transcript: I have some follow-up questions, but I’m also noticing that we are at time, with just a few minutes before time.

Segment Synopsis: Cochi adds a few final words on the GPEI.

Keywords: endemic; Geneva [Switzerland]; statistics; surveillance

Subjects: WHA [World Health Assembly]; WHO [World Health Organization]