Global Health Chronicles

Cara Burns

David J. Sencer CDC Museum, Global Health Chronicles
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0:46 - Background and Education

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Partial Transcript: To begin, would you introduce yourself by name, state where and when you were born and share a bit about your early life?

Segment Synopsis: Burns discusses her family, background, and education.

Keywords: Appalachian Trail; Bryce Canyon; Colorado School of Mines; D. Beck; Dartmouth Outing Club; enzymology; Hanover, New Hampshire; homesteading; Houston, Texas; J. Wild; Jones Foundation; MCAT; Medical College Admission Test; mining engineering; PAHO; Pan American Health Organization; poliovirus lab; public health; Scholarship; the Panhandle; Utah, USA; West Texas; Zion Park

Subjects: biochemistry; biology; Colorado; New Hampshire; Student Conservation Association; Texas; Texas A&M University; University of Utah; Utah

9:25 - Mentorships

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Partial Transcript: Could you talk about your mentor?

Segment Synopsis: Burns describes several mentors during undergraduate, graduate, and post doc work.

Keywords: Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Yeshiva University; D. Beck; E. Ehrenfeld; J. Overbaugh; J. Wild; M. Pallansch; New York; NIH; O. Kew; O. Richards; Olympia, Washington; OPV2 Consortium; Oral Polio Vaccine, type 2; Polio Research Committee; poliovirus lab; PRC; Seattle, Washington; U.S. National Institutes of Health; UC Irvine; University of California; virologist; WHO; World Health Organization

Subjects: biochemistry; California; CDC; State of Washington; University of Utah; Utah

13:47 - Science of Polio

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Partial Transcript: I wanted to ask you about the science.

Segment Synopsis: Burns discusses her early lab work on polio.

Keywords: bacteria; CDC; cloning; cold viruses; genome; host protein synthesis; lyses cells; lytic viruses; molecular biology; polio replication; polymerase mutations; polymerase protein; PV(1) Mahoney; Rhinoviruses; ribonucleic acid; RNA; RNA replication; Salk strain; type 1 Mahoney; University of Utah; water quality

Subjects: assays; inactivated polio vaccine; IPV; mutations; poliomyelitis; Utah

16:46 - Early Research

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Partial Transcript: Where did that lead you?

Segment Synopsis: Burns discusses early research in her career focusing on feline leukemia virus and HIV.

Keywords: academic research lab; acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; cancer; clone; co-receptor; envelope processing; feline AIDS; feline immunodeficiency; feline immunodeficiency virus; FIV; genetics; government lab; HIV-1 integrase; integrase genes; J. Overbaugh; molecular biology; molecular epi; murine leukemia virus; pathogenesis; public health; receptors; replication enzymes; retroviruses; Simian HIV; SIV; University of Washington in Seattle; virology

Subjects: Africa; feline leukemia virus; HIV-1; immunodeficiency; Kenya; Washington state

20:14 - Joining the CDC

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Partial Transcript: When I was looking for jobs—

Segment Synopsis: Burns discusses applying for and starting work at the CDC.

Keywords: academic lab; envelope processing; feline leukemia virus receptor; funding; genetics; Global Polio Lab Net; Global Polio Laboratory Network; GPLN; grant proposals; journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science; M. Pallansch; molecular epidemiology work; O. Kew; Office of Laboratory Science and Safety; OLSS; research institutes; S. Monroe; Science Magazine; sequencing

Subjects: CDC; central sequence database; molecular work; polio; vaccine project

24:27 - Molecular Epidemiology and Polio Database at CDC

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Partial Transcript: Do you have any stories about it?

Segment Synopsis: Burns discusses the use of molecular epidemiology and a global polio database.

Keywords: acute flaccid paralysis; AFP; C. de Quadros; Center for Global Health; central database; dendrograms; Division of Viral Diseases; Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office of the WHO; EMRO; environmental surveillance; epi; flu; Geneva, Switzerland; genome; GID; global AIDS program; Global Immunization Division; GPLN; H. Asghar; HIV; immune system; immunize; Johannesburg, South Africa; M. Pallansch; MEANS database; Measle Nucleotide Surveillance; measles; mutation; N. Gumede-Moeletsi; National Institute for Biological Standards and Control; NIBSC; nucleotides; O. Kew; PAHO; pilot experiments; polio nucleotide sequence database; proteins; public health international programs; public health lab; R. Rico-Hesse; radioactive; RNA sequence; rubella; sequences; smallpox; South African; surveillance; the small working group; vaccine-derived poliovirus; VDPV; WHO; wild poliovirus; World Health Assembly; World Health Organization Ad Hoc Small Working Group

Subjects: Afghanistan; Africa; CDC; China; Democratic Republic of Congo; DRC; global polio lab network; Kenya; LabNet; molecular epidemiology; Nigeria; Pakistan; polio; polio eradication program; regional reference lab; Somalia; South Africa; Switzerland; United Kingdom; vaccines

36:27 - Regional Lab Structure

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Partial Transcript: What was the occasion for introducing that role of the regional coordinators?

Segment Synopsis: Burns discusses regional lab structures and polio testing capacities.

Keywords: A. Williams; acrylamide gels; African region; CDC; cell culture; D. Kilpatrick; Dakar, Senegal; E. Vega; ELISA; enterovirus; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; flu; Geneva, Switzerland; genotype; genotype-specific reagents; global LabNet coordinator; global specialized labs; Ibadan, Nigeria; J. Nakano; Lake Chad basin; Maiduguri, Nigeria; measles lab directors; molecular serotyping; Nigerian; nucleic molecular assay; O. Diop; O. Kew; pan entero; polio lab directors; probe hybridization; protein-based technique; reagents; RNA fingerprinting; Sabin; Sabin vaccine strain; SEARO; small working group; South-East Asia Regional Office of WHO; temperature-dependent assay; vaccine; vaccine-derived poliovirus; WHO; wild poliovirus; wild-specific assays; x-ray film

Subjects: Afghanistan; assays; environmental surveillance; molecular epi; Nigeria; Pakistan; PCR technology; polio; polymerase chain reaction; real-time PCR; regional LabNet coordinators; regional labs; regional meetings; reservoirs; Senegal; Switzerland; vaccine

46:15 - Training at Regional Labs

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Partial Transcript: I have a few follow-up questions.

Segment Synopsis: Burns discusses trainings at regional labs, focusing on the first she did in India.

Keywords: acrylamide gels; annual global polio LabNet meeting; Bangkok, Thailand; CDC Travel; Chennai, India; E. Vega; Elephanta Island, India; ELISA; entero; Geneva, Switzerland; J. Deshpande; karaoke; molecular-based techniques; Mumbai, India; N. Dybdahl-Sissoko; N. Withana; OPV; PAHO; PCR workshop; probe hybridization; protein-based; reagents; real-time PCR; regional lab coordinators; reservoir; Sabin; sequence; vaccine-derived poliovirus; VDPV screening assay; Western Pacific Regional Office of the WHO; WPRO

Subjects: assays; CDC; Enterovirus Research Center; ERC; India; Indonesia; international training; lab visits; labs; PCR; polio; SEARO; Southeast Asia; Switzerland; Thailand; the Netherlands; transferring technology; WHO Southeast Asia Region

53:30 - Advice for Training at Regional Labs

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Partial Transcript: Before we talk about VDPVs, vaccine-derived polioviruses, is there any specific advice that you would give to people who in the future might be coordinating global training efforts, transferring technology?

Segment Synopsis: Burns discusses strategies and considerations for global trainings.

Keywords: auditors; biorisk management; distilled water; epi; GAPIII; Global Action Plan III; Global AIDS Program; Global Polio LabNet; inactivate; National Institute for Biological Standards and Controls; PCR; PCR machine; PEPFAR; President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief; radioactive waste; regional lab coordinator; security concerns; sequencing; serum; state-of-the-art lab; surveillance; type 1 and 3; type 2 poliovirus; vaccine-derived poliovirus isolates; vaccine-derived polioviruses; VDPVs; WHO; WHO Global Action Plan To Minimize Poliovirus Facility-Associated Risk After Type-Specific Eradication of Wild Polioviruses and Sequential Cessation of Oral Polio Vaccine Use

Subjects: CDC; culture of respect; DRC, Democratic Republic of Congo; Flinders Technology Associates cards; FTA; global training efforts; lab accreditation visit; labs; quality-assurance; quality-control; the Netherlands; transferring technology; UK

58:51 - LabNet and Public Health Work

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Partial Transcript: We’re almost to the vaccine-derived polioviruses.

Segment Synopsis: Burns reflects on personal experience with LabNet and public health work.

Keywords: HIV; HIV integrase sequencing; long PCR; medical school; molecular epi; mother and infant transmission; polio eradication; prevent; public health lab; receptor cloning; regional meetings; retroviruses; sex worker studies; transfer of technology; vaccine-derived polioviruses; vaccines; women-focused work

Subjects: CDC; Kenya; lab; LabNet; Mississippi; professional satisfaction; public health; public health international programs; research

62:42 - History of Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses

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Partial Transcript: Vaccine-derived polioviruses—

Segment Synopsis: Burns discusses the emergence of vaccine-derived polioviruses and steps taken to stop it.

Keywords: A. Sabin; bivalent OPV; C. Li; CDC; crowding; ELISA; EMRO; enteroviruses; EURO; genetic instability; genomes; high population densities; intratypic differentiation; islands; ITD; L. Schaefer; long PCR; measles; molecular techniques; monovalent OPV2; neurovirulence; PAHO; PCR; plaque purifications; polio transmission; poor sanitation; primates; public health; Sabin; Sanger automated DNA sequencing; sequencing lab; strains 1, 2, and 3; transgenic mouse model; trivalent OPV; type 1 vaccine-derived poliovirus; type 2 strains; vaccine; wild type 2

Subjects: AFP; Asia; Dominican Republic; DRC; Egypt; epi; eradication; Haiti; Hispaniola; immunization; India; IPV; live attenuated oral polio vaccine; mutations; Nigeria; paralysis; Peru; polio; population immunity; sequencing; surveillance; Syria; the Netherlands; Trinidad; Turkey; U.S.; vaccine coverage; vaccine research; vaccine-derived polioviruses; WHO; wild polio

76:02 - Challenges with Vaccine Efforts and Surveillance

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Partial Transcript: Is there a point in time at which the quality of vaccination efforts changed?

Segment Synopsis: Burns discusses the global challenges with vaccine efforts and surveillance.

Keywords: AFP; AFRO; bag-mediated filter system; Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation; Boko Haram; catchment; cooperation; Deir ez-Zur, Syria; E. de Gourville; EMRO; enterovirus; environmental surveillance; epi; Finnish; global coordinator; GPLN; H. Asghar; half-life; high titer; J. Andrus; Japanese; Johannesburg, South Africa; molecular testing; nasal swabs; Nile River; PAHO; poliovirus isolates; quality control; quantitative; Raqqa, Syria; rectal swabs; redundancy; regional coordinator; regional lab; sample splitting; sanitation issues; sequencing; sewage; stool; two-phase concentration method; University of Washington; vaccine refusal; VDPV2; war; WHO; wild type 1

Subjects: Afghanistan; Africa; Angola; challenges; China; civil unrest; DRC; Egypt; Finland; Haiti; immunization; India; Israel; Japan; labs; Nigeria; Pakistan; Republic of Congo; samples; social infrastructure; Somalia; South Africa; surveillance; Syria; the Netherlands; vaccination; vaccine-derived poliovirus; wild polio

90:16 - Vaccine Research Project

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Partial Transcript: The third topic that we thought we would cover today is your vaccine project.

Segment Synopsis: Burns discusses vaccine research for IPV and OPV.

Keywords: alternative seed strains; amino acid sequence; attenuated; biological selection; biology; blinded; blood system; central sequence database; circulation; codon deoptimization; codons; contained study; containment; CpG dinucleotides; dinucleotides; DNA; enteroviruses; flu; FMDV; foot and mouth disease virus; Gates Grand Challenges; gene; gut immunity; HIV; J. Konopka-Anstadt; J. Quay; long PCR; Mahoney MEF-1; molecular biology; molecular epi; monovalent OPV2; new OPV2; nucleotide sequence; O. Kew; OPV1 and 3; OPV2 consortium of scientists; outbreak response; paralysis; pharmaceutical companies; polio eradication; Poliopolis; polymerase mutations; protein; public health; RNA; robotics; Sabin 2 strain; Sabin IPV; Salk strains; Saukett; semi-automated assays; sequencing; serology; testing; the Gates Foundation; University of Antwerp; UpA dinucleotides; vaccine stockpile; virus excretion assays; W. Gates; W. Weldon; WHO; WHO Polio Research Committee

Subjects: Canada; China; clinical trial; Democratic Republic of Congo; Europe; fitness; genetic instability; immune system response; immunity; India; IPV; Israel; Japan; mutations; Nigeria; OPV; Pakistan; patent; polio; Syria; U.S.; vaccine project; vaccine-derived poliovirus; wild poliovirus

106:44 - Computational and Data Management Technology

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Partial Transcript: I think you’ve covered most of what we set out to talk about today, but I wanted to see if there are any—we always miss a lot of material—

Segment Synopsis: Burns discusses technology for tracking polio.

Keywords: ABI Electronics; Accra, Ghana; African Region of the WHO; AFRO; bacterial labs; CDC; central sequences; certification; chains of transmission; dendrograms; F. Adu; family trees; genomes; genotype; GPLN; H. Asghar; Islamabad, Pakistan; JFK; Johannesburg, South Africa; John F. Kennedy Airport; MathWorks company software; MATLAB® software; matrix laboratory; measles; New York City, New York; next-generation; nucleotides; O. Kew; phylogenetic analysis; PIDs; preventative maintenance; primary immunodeficiencies; R. Marine; real-time PCR machines; remote coaching; Sanger automated sequencing technology; sequencing PT proficiency test; serotype; South African; vaccine-derived polioviruses; VDPV; VP-1 protein; VP-1 sequencing; wild polio

Subjects: Africa; analysis; clustering; computational and data management technology transfer; epi; Ghana; labs; maps; molecular epi; New York; Nigeria; Pakistan; polio; regional lab meeting; sequencing technology; software tools; South Africa; travel

116:43 - Final Thoughts

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Partial Transcript: Well, thank you so much—

Segment Synopsis: Burns suggests other possible interviewees and subjects to explore in follow-up interviews.

Keywords: African; AFRO; biosafety; biosecurity; containment; D. Yang; direct detection technology; E. de Gourville; E. Vega; ELISA technique; EMRO; environmental surveillance; EURO; G. Gavrilin; GAPIII audit; global lab coordinator; H. Asghar; H. van der Avoort; inactivation methods; Johannesburg, South Africa; kits of primers; L. De; M. Pallansch; N. Gumede-Moeletsi; O. Diop; PCRs; picornaviruses; polio lab director; polio LabNet; polio sequencing; probe hybridization; regional lab coordinator; rotavirus labs; Russian; Sabin assays; sequencing methods; small working group; technique development; training; VDPV2; virus isolation; wild polio

Subjects: Africa; CDC; Egypt; labs; oral history project; Pakistan; polio; Polio and Picornavirus Lab Branch; Russia; South Africa; team; the Netherlands; transfer