Global Health Chronicles

Dr. Peter Salk

David J. Sencer CDC Museum, Global Health Chronicles
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00:05:13 - Background/Education

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Partial Transcript: And would you tell us about your father’s life and how he grew up, to start with, and about him, and then we’ll talk about your life and then of the more specific questions?

Segment Synopsis: Dr. P. Salk describes his father, Dr. Jonas Salk’s family background and how his father became involved with infectious disease research.

Keywords: 1914; Ann Arbor, MI; Bronx; D. Lindsay; Darrell Salk; Dora Salk; E. Lindsay; H. Salk; J. Salk; Jewish; L. Salk; Lithuania; Minsk, Belarus; New York City; R. Cannan; T. Francis; United States; chemistry; research

Subjects: City College of New York; Mount Sinai Hospital; New York University School of Medicine; United States Army; University of Michigan; World War I; World War II; influenza; vaccine

00:22:21 - Types of Poliovirus

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Partial Transcript: Ended up going to University of Pittsburgh to head up a new virus research laboratory.

Segment Synopsis: Dr. Salk discusses his father’s experience working with the Pittsburgh typing program.

Keywords: A. Sabin; B. Bennett; Breakthrough: The Saga of Jonas Salk; F. Robbins; H. Weaver; I. Morgan; J. Enders; J. Youngner; L. Lewis; P. Bazeley; Pittsburgh; R. Carter; T. Turner; T. Weller; chief scientists; infectious disease hospital; laboratory; three immunologic types; tissue culture; typing program

Subjects: D. Bodian; D. Wegemer; E. Ward; F. Yurochko; J. Kolmer; M. Brodie; March of Dimes; Municipal Hospital [of Pittsburgh]; National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis; Nobel Prize; University of Pittsburgh; W. Park; poliovirus

00:49:43 - Salk at Home

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Partial Transcript: So we’re taking a diversion into your question about males in the family, and you said my father was oldest of three sons.

Segment Synopsis: Dr. P. Salk describes growing up with a public health icon as a father.

Keywords: Ann Arbor, MI; D. Salk; Detroit; E. Salk; E. Ward; H. Salk; J. Salk; L. Salk; Mars, Pa; Palm Springs, Ca; clinical psychologist; veterinarian

Subjects: D. Lindsay Salk; D.T. Watson Home for Crippled Children; Geneva, Switzerland; Parke Davis Pharmaceutical; Pine Community Center; Shalom Research Farms; polio conference; social worker

01:13:47 - The Color Test

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Partial Transcript: Now plugging that back into Juli Youngner and the question mark.

Segment Synopsis: Dr. P. Salk discusses the color test that Elise Ward and Juli Youngner worked on with his father, Jonas Salk.

Keywords: : J. Youngner; E. Ward; antibody titer; color test; inactivation; trypsinization

01:21:03 - Francis Field Trials

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Partial Transcript: OK. I’m going to digress. Sometimes linearity gets fatiguing, so let me say – OK, I wanted to tell you a story about David Bodian, because you had asked about him.

Segment Synopsis: Dr. Salk describes his father’s colleagues, professional influences and thoughts on the polio vaccine patent.

Keywords: April 12; B. O’Connor; D. Bodian; D. Rose; E. Murrow; EDTA; Merthiolate; Pittsburgh; T. Francis; The Shot Felt ‘Round the World; Versene; Watson home trials; archivist; ethylenediaminetraacetic acid; field trial; moral basis; observed control; patent; placebo-control portion; placebo-controlled trial; polio season; sanitation; selection bias; socioeconomic level

Subjects: Canada; Cutter Laboratories; Eli Lilly and Company; Finland; Johns Hopkins; March of Dimes; Merck Sharp & Dohme Pharmaceuticals; National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis; Parke-Davis; Pittman-Moore, Inc.; Public Health Service; United States; United States of America; Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

01:48:52 - Cutter Incident

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Partial Transcript: The vaccine rolled out, and after April 12, within two weeks kids started getting polio from the vaccine, from the Cutter vaccine.

Segment Synopsis: Dr. P. Salk traces the impact of the Cutter incident on the immunization campaigns.

Keywords: Cutter vaccine; P. Offit; field trial; prescriptions; straight-line inactivation

Subjects: Cutter Incident; Cutter Laboratories; Lilly Laboratories; National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis; Parke-Davis

01:52:50 - Sabin/Live Vaccine

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Partial Transcript: So, let’s follow the course of polio in the United States.

Segment Synopsis: Dr. P. Salk discusses the ways in which the Sabin live vaccine failed and shares the results of Scandinavian study.

Keywords: 1961; Sabin vaccine; W. Orenstein; fecal material; incidence; intestinal immunity; non-paralytic; paralytic; sugar cube; wild naturally-occurring virus

Subjects: ACIP; AMA; Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices; American Medical Association; Finland; Sweden; United States; polio

02:04:00 - Polio Eradication Efforts

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Partial Transcript: OK, so I may need another break in a moment, but let me just do a little bit – and I think I can do it pretty quickly – on the eradication program, triggered by Rotary with work they started in the Philippines – PAHO, Pan American Health Organization, and Ciro de Quadros.

Segment Synopsis: Dr. Salk shares his views on the Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

Keywords: 125 countries; 1988; Circo de Quadros; D. Sabin; R. Sutter; VAPP; Vaccine-associated paralytic polio; W. Orenstein; bOPV; bivalent oral polio vaccine; cVDPV; circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus; eradicate; resistance; vaccine workers; wild virus

Subjects: Afghanistan; Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation; CDC; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; GPEI; Global Polio Eradication Initiative; IMB; Independent Monitoring Board; India; Israel; Nigeria; PAHO; Pakistan; Pan American Health Organization; Philippines; Rotary International; Taliban; UNICEF; United Nations Children’s Fund; WHO; World Health Organization

02:23:13 - Jonas Salk Legacy

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Partial Transcript: OK, so I know we should talk a little bit about my father and his life after the vaccine because, again, all during this time there’s a part of my father that’s - you can see it in the photographs. There’s this part of him that’s thinking, processing, and thinking about things on a broader scale.

Segment Synopsis: Dr. P. Salk talks about his father and the work of the Jonas Salk Legacy Foundation.

Keywords: : La Jolla, California; A. Sabin; AIDS epidemic; AIDS vaccine project; B. Bennett; B. O’Connor; E. Ward; F. Crick; F. Gilot; H. Lacks; HeLa Cells; J. Cohen; J. Lewis; J. Romine; J. Salk; J. Youngner; L. Kahn; L. Montagnier; M. Salk; MS; R. Gallo; San Diego County; V. Bazeley; World AIDS Conference, Bridging the Gap; cancer; fundamental biology; multiple sclerosis

Subjects: AIDS Army; HIV; JAMA; Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding; Jonas Salk Legacy Foundation; Journal of the American Medical Association; Malawi; March of Dimes; NIH; National Academy of Sciences; National Institutes of Health; Nobel Prize; UCSD; University of California, San Diego; University of Pittsburgh; accquired immunodeficiency syndrome; human immunodeficiency virus